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Vehicle Speed Sensor VSS

This category on the website [ Sensors and Wiring ] we are giving you all of the information related to the individual sensors in the Buick Turbo Regal, along with the associated wiring, connector plugs, etc.

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VEHICLE APPLICATION:

Buick Regal, T-Type, Turbo T, Limited, Grand National, GNX

SENSOR NAME:

Vehicle Speed Sensor

PURPOSE OF SENSOR:

sends signal to ECM, cruise control, for how fast the vehicle is going.
This module interprets vehicle speed with an optical sensor for the functions of torque converter lockup and cruise control.

TURNS ON-OFF / FUNCTIONS / USED WHEN:

in constant use while vehicle is moving

LOCATION IN VEHICLE:

inside the convenience center, along with: Chime module, CC module, flasher relay, horn relay.

ORIGINAL GM PART NUMBER:

?

SENSOR / BASE COLOR:

The vss buffer has a green case.

CONNECTOR PLUG COLOR (SENSOR SIDE):

black (optical transceiver head)

WIRES ATTACHED (SENSOR SIDE):

3
green (signal output)
black (1.4v ref)
red (led ground)

3 wires (output of the vss buffer, into the optical transceiver [vehicle speed sensor (optical type)], which plugs into the speedometer next to the speedo cable)

CONNECTOR PLUG COLOR (HARNESS SIDE):

black

NUMBER OF WIRES ATTACHED (HARNESS SIDE):

4

COLOR & PURPOSE OF (HARNESS SIDE) WIRES:

pink-black “C” (ignition input), goes to (junction) to gages fuse

black-white “B” (ground), goes to (junction) to gear selector switch “A”
(junction connects with other things)

brown “A” (output 2), goes to (junction) to ECM “A10” (12v vss input)
(junction connects with other things)

red (output 1), goes to cruise control module “B” (5v vss input)

THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT THIS ITEM:

input into the vss:
2 connectors, 4 wires, plug into other end

The vehicle speed sensor (optical type) has an internal LED.
The speedometer reflects infrared light.

OTHER NOTES:

AKA: vehicle speed sensor buffer.

If your vehicle is setting a VSS sensor code, the module may require replacement.

[you can read more specific detailed about this whole vss process here: installationinstructions.com/FYI/vss-tech.pdf]

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QUICK INFO ABOUT HOW THE VSS WORKS:

Road speed is a key factor in processing important functions in the GM vehicle, such as Torque Converter Lockup, Canister Purge events, Coolant Fan shut-off, speed governor, deceleration enleanment filtering, and a few other “housekeeping” chores. To maintain normal vehicle operation, it is important that the vehicle speed sensor functions properly. If the sensor should fail, a SES code 24 will be set and will cause improper operation of the vehicle. The vehicle speed sensor in the 1984-1987 Regal is a sensor that registers a pulse train, relative to actual road speed, by monitoring the speedometer cable rotation. This is accomplished by a pickup transceiver which is mounted in the rear of the speedometer head. The pickup, secured by a single screw, incorporates an infrared light source (transmitter) and a focused IR phototransistor (receiver). When positioned in the speedometer head, the pickup focuses upon an interrupter which is a reflective steel plate. The plate is designed so that with each revolution of the speedometer cable, the reflective plate enters the field of view twice, resulting in two pulses for each full turn of the speedometer cable.

The pickup head is attached to the VSS Buffer Module which is a green plastic box located in the passenger compartment and attached near the base of the steering column. Note: Single Channel VSS Buffer is housed in a yellow plastic enclosure. Buick Regals have two types of VSS Buffer Modules, a “single channel” and a “dual channel”. The single channel module is used on vehicles which are not fitted with Cruise Control. However, most Regals are fitted with Cruise Control, so the dual channel modules are much more common. There are three colored wires in a harness connecting the Transceiver (pickup) head to the controller PC board: Green (signal) Black (1.4V LED power) and Red (LED Ground). The output of the VSS Buffer operates this way: When there is no reflection in the path of the pickup, the outputs go to ground, and when the pickup head “sees” the reflection, the output goes “open”. Since the ECM incorporates a “pull-up” resistor in its signal input pin, the ECM will then interpret logic “1” during interrupter signal and logic “0” with no interrupter signal. Cruise control signal input works in the same way. The harness length is either 15 or 31 inches long depending on the part number used in the specific application. Either part number can be used on the Turbo Regals.

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you can see here: 1984/1985 sensor locations

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PHOTOS OF SENSOR AND CONNECTED WIRES:
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instrument cluster plug C2 pinout DIGITAL DASH
84-85 ecm vss gear o2 tps coolant temp

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Here’s a list of all of the sensors in the Buick Regal:
(you can click the links to go to the one you need info about, after they’re published)

* Air Temperature Intake Sensor (IAT; MAT; ATS)
* Camshaft Sensor (CAM)
* Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
* Crank Sensor
* Knock Sensor
* Mass Air Flow Sensor (MAF)
* Manifold Air Pressure Sensor (MAP)
* Oxygen Sensor (O2, narrowband)
* Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
* Turbo Boost Gage Sensor
* Twilight Sentinel Photo Cell Sensor
* Vehicle Speed Sensor
* Wideband Oxygen Sensor (WBO2)

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